Transformer Model

6 Key Components and Training Your Transformer

What Is the Transformer Model in AI?

The Transformer model is a type of deep learning model that is primarily used in the processing of sequential data such as natural language. It was introduced in a paper titled "Attention is All You Need" by Vaswani et al., in 2017.

The Transformer model was unique and revolutionary because it went beyond the use of recurrence and convolutions, which were the previous techniques used for sequential data processing. Instead, it uses a mechanism called "attention" to weigh the influence of different parts of the input, during the processing of each part of the output.

The Transformer model is designed to understand the context and semantics of a sentence by recognizing the relationship and dependencies between the words, even when they are far apart. This has allowed AI systems based on the Transformer architecture to achieve an unprecedented level of understanding of human language, which can reach and even exceed human level for some tasks.

Transformer models are currently considered the state of the art in many areas of natural language processing (NLP), most notably large language models (LLMs).

This is part of a series of articles about Generative AI.

In this article:

What Can Transformer Models Do?

The application of Transformer models in AI is far-reaching. They have been employed in various NLP tasks such as translation, summarization, dialogue systems, and text generation. For instance, in machine translation, Transformer models can translate an entire sentence at once instead of word by word, thereby preserving the original meaning and context.

In the area of text generation, Transformer models have shown a remarkable ability to generate coherent and contextually relevant text based on textual prompts. They have been used to write articles, create poetry, and generate working code.

The most notable example is OpenAI's series of GPT models, which entered the public sphere with the release of the ChatGPT AI chatbot. ChatGPT, and its underlying models, GPT 3.5 and GPT 4, are based on a Transformer model and can produce human-like text that is almost indistinguishable from text written by a human. Next-generation models are using Transformer architectures to analyze images and text together for multi-modal operation.

Moreover, Transformer models' capacity to process long-range dependencies makes them well-suited for various other applications. For instance, in bioinformatics, they can be used to predict protein structures by identifying relationships between distant amino acids. In finance, they can be used to analyze time-series data to predict stock prices or identify fraudulent transactions.

Architecture of the Transformer Model

Here are the key components that participate in the Transformer architecture, and how they work together.

Source: Papers with Code

1. Input Embedding Layer

The first step in the process involves the input embedding layer. The purpose of this layer is to convert input words into vectors of continuous values. These vectors are a dense representation of the words and capture the semantic and syntactic properties of the words. The values of these vectors are learned during the training process.

The input embedding layer is crucial because it transforms the discrete input words into a form that can be processed by the model. In addition, these embedded vectors are a more efficient representation of words compared to one-hot encoding, which would result in very high-dimensional vectors for large vocabularies.

2. Positional Encoding

Given that the Transformer model does not use recurrence or convolutions, it has no inherent sense of the position or order of the words in a sentence. This is where positional encoding comes in. The purpose of positional encoding is to inject information about the relative or absolute position of the words in the sentence into the model.

Positional encoding is added to the input embeddings before they are input to the model. This addition allows the model to consider the position of the words when processing the sentence. There are various ways to implement positional encoding, but the original Transformer paper uses a specific technique called sinusoidal encoding.

3. Multi-Head Self-Attention Mechanism

The heart of the Transformer model is the multi-head self-attention mechanism. This mechanism allows the model to weigh the relevance of different parts of the input when processing each part of the output. In other words, it allows the model to "pay attention" to different parts of the input to varying degrees.

The term "multi-head" refers to the fact that the self-attention mechanism is applied multiple times in parallel, with each application using different learned linear transformations of the input. This multi-head approach allows the model to capture different types of relationships in the data.

4. Feed-Forward Neural Networks

Each layer of the Transformer model also includes a feed-forward neural network, which is applied independently to each position. These networks have hidden layers and non-linear activation functions, which allow the model to learn complex patterns in the data.

The role of the feed-forward networks in the Transformer model is to transform the representations produced by the self-attention mechanism. This transformation allows the model to learn more complex relationships in the data beyond what can be captured by the attention mechanism alone.

5. Normalization and Residual Connections

Normalization and residual connections are important components of the Transformer model's architecture that help to stabilize the training process. Normalization is a process that standardizes the inputs to each layer of the model, reducing the chance of the model being affected by extreme values or unstable gradients.

Residual connections are a type of shortcut connection that allows the gradient to flow directly from the output of a layer to its input. These connections help to mitigate the problem of vanishing gradients, which can occur when training deep neural networks and make it difficult for the model to learn.

6. Output Layer

The final component of the Transformer model's architecture is the output layer. This layer is responsible for producing the final output of the model. In the case of a language translation task, for instance, the output layer would produce a sequence of words in the target language.

The output layer typically consists of a linear transformation followed by a softmax function, which produces a probability distribution over the possible output words. The word with the highest probability is selected as the output word at each position. In this way, the model generates its output, word by word. Some newer versions of the Transformer architecture can generate entire sentences or paragraphs at once.

Related content: Read our guide to AI developers

Steps for Training Your Own Transformer Models

Here are the general steps involved in training your own transformer model for a unique use case. Note that this is only a high level discussion, and the detailed technical steps for training transformer models are outside our scope.

1. Collecting and Preprocessing Data

Data collection involves gathering relevant information that will be used to train the model. This can be anything from text documents for natural language processing tasks, to images for computer vision tasks. The data should be representative of the problem you are trying to solve, and should be diverse enough to capture all possible scenarios the model might encounter.

Preprocessing is the next step and involves cleaning and formatting the data into a form that the Transformer model can understand. This might involve removing irrelevant information, dealing with missing values, and converting the data into numerical form. In the case of natural language processing, this could also involve tokenizing the text into individual words or subwords, and then converting these tokens into numerical representations, typically using a machine learning technique such as Word2Vec.

2. Configure Model Hyperparameters

The next step is to configure the model hyperparameters. Hyperparameters are parameters that are not learned from the data but are set beforehand. They control the learning process of the model and can have a significant impact on the model's performance.

Some of the crucial hyperparameters in a Transformer model include:

  • Number of layers in the model
  • Number of heads in the multi-head attention mechanism
  • Dimensionality of input and output vectors
  • Dropout rate

Setting these hyperparameters requires expertise and a good understanding of the model architecture. Even for experienced operators, experimentation is key. When using the Transformer for a new application, there is often a process of trial and error, where different combinations of hyperparameters are tested to find the one that gives the best performance.

However, because Transformers have been successfully used for a wide range of applications, it is usually possible to find a pre-tuned set of hyperparameters for the problem at hand.

3. Initialize Model Weights

Once the hyperparameters have been set, the next step is to initialize the model weights. In a Transformer model, these weights include the parameters of the self-attention mechanism, the feed-forward neural network, and the positional encoding, among others.

Initialization plays a crucial role in training deep learning models. It can affect the speed of convergence of the learning algorithm, and can also influence the final performance of the model. Therefore, it's essential to choose an appropriate initialization method.

There are various methods for weight initialization, each with its strengths and weaknesses. Some of the common methods include zero initialization, random initialization, and Xavier/Glorot initialization.

4. Optimizer and Loss Function Selection

The optimizer is an algorithm that adjusts the model weights to minimize the loss function, which measures the difference between the model's predictions and the actual values.

Different optimizers work differently, but their goal is the same: to find the optimal set of weights that minimizes the loss function. Some of the commonly used optimizers in deep learning include Gradient Descent, Stochastic Gradient Descent, Adam, and RMSProp.

The loss function depends on the task. For classification tasks, the cross-entropy loss is commonly used, while for regression tasks, the mean squared error is often the choice. The loss function should reflect the objective of the task and should be differentiable, as the optimizer relies on the gradient of the loss function to update the weights.

5. Train the Model Using the Training Dataset

With all the preparations done, the next step is to train the model using the training dataset. This involves feeding the preprocessed data into the model, calculating the loss, and then adjusting the weights using the optimizer.

Training a Transformer model is computationally intensive, and it often requires a powerful machine (or cluster of machines) with multiple high-performance GPUs. It can take a long time, up to weeks for large datasets and very complex models with millions or billions of parameters.

During the training process, it's important to monitor the loss and the performance of the model on a validation set. This helps to detect issues like overfitting, where the model performs well on the training data but poorly on unseen data. If such issues arise, techniques like regularization, dropout, and early stopping can be used to mitigate them.

6. Evaluation and Testing

Finally, after the model has been trained, it's time to evaluate its performance and test it on unseen data. Evaluation involves measuring the performance of the model using certain metrics. These metrics depend on the task. For instance, for classification tasks, accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 score are commonly used.

Testing, on the other hand, involves using the model to make predictions on new, unseen data. This is the ultimate test of the model's performance, as it shows how well the model can generalize to new scenarios.

Large-Scale Transformer Training with Run:ai

Run:ai automates resource management and orchestration for machine learning infrastructure, including GPUs used for Transformer model training. With Run:ai, you can automatically run as many compute intensive experiments as needed.

Here are some of the capabilities you gain when using Run:ai:

  • Advanced visibility—create an efficient pipeline of resource sharing by pooling GPU compute resources.
  • No more bottlenecks—you can set up guaranteed quotas of GPU resources, to avoid bottlenecks and optimize billing.
  • A higher level of control—Run:ai enables you to dynamically change resource allocation, ensuring each job gets the resources it needs at any given time.

Run:ai simplifies machine learning infrastructure pipelines, helping data scientists accelerate their productivity and the quality of their models.

Learn more about the Run:ai GPU virtualization platform.